Does the Sun lose mass during the process of lighting up the sky. Yes! Scientist describes this as luminosity. Luminosity is the energy per second or watts of the star. To find the amount of mass the sun releases we use Einstein’s famous equation E=mc2, sometimes called the mass-energy equivalence equation. To find the mass we solve for M: M=E/c2 where c is the speed of light, E is Luminosity in this case, and M is the mass convert to energy.
Luminosity: 3.846E26 W
Speed of light: 2.99E8 m/s
Input the numbers:
= 4.276E9 J/s
We find the Sun loses 4.276E9 kg of mass to energy every second or 1.353E17 kg of mass to energy every year. An awful lot of science would be wrong if this was not true; for example, how we measure the brightness of stars their distance, Einstein’s equation, and other works.
Consider this very accurate measurement of the mass of the Sun at 1.98855E30 +/- 0.00025 kg.
The ratio of mass lost every year to the mass of the Sun is .000000000000068. Good news the Sun will not run out of mass to burn up any time soon. The question lies with the history of the planet Earth.
The beginning of the Jurassic Era is said to be 200 million years ago. Let us consider this.
= 1.353E17 * 200,000,000
= 2.71E25 kg
The ratio of masses 200 million years ago is .0000136 still a small number. A visual amount of this mass is about the size of Uranus.
Let us consider the age of the planet Earth of 4.54 billion years ago.
= 1.353E17 * 4,540,000,000
= 6.142E26 kg
The ratio of masses 4.54 billion years ago is .000308 about the size of Saturn.
It is feasible that the Sun can lose 6.142E26 kg of mass from way back then to present day.
In conclusion, we consider the energy from the Sun in terms of mass. Does the Sun Shrink? Yes, in terms of mass. Further investigation is required to determine how density and volume impact the Sun. However, we do know mass is a component of density. What is surprizing is we are right in the middle of the life of the Sun. Extrapolating back and forward in time shows that Earth is directly in the middle of the life of the Sun. Very odd!